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English Bibliography

Angenendt, A. (2003). How was a confraternity made? the evidence of the charters. Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues. D. Rollason.

Arngart, O. S. (1914). 'The Calendar of Saint Willibrord: a little used source for English personal names.' Studia Neophilologica 16: 128-34.

Barrow, G. (2003). Scots in the Liber Vitae. Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues. D. Rollason.

Bijsterveld, A.-J. (1999). 'The Commemoration of Patrons and Gifts in Chronicles from the Diocese of Liège.' Revue Bénédictine 109: 208-43. [see literature survey]

Bishop, E. (1911). 'Liturgical Comments and Memoranda, iv.' Journal of Theological Studies 12: 384-413.

Blows, M. (1991). A Glastonbury Obit-List. The Archaeology and History of Glastonbury Abbey. L. Abrams, and Carley, J. P.: 257-69. [see literature survey]

Briggs, E. (1987). Religion, Society and Politics, and the Durham Liber Vitae.

Briggs, E. (2003). Nothing But Names: the original core of the Durham Liber Vitae. Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues. D. Rollason.

Burton, J. (1979). 'A Confraternity List from St Mary's Abbey, York.' Revue Bénédictine 89: 325-33. [see literature survey]

Burton, J. (2003). Commemoration and Memorialization in a Yorkshire Context. Durham Liber Vitae: Context and Analogues. D. Rollason.

Cheney, C. (1985). Two Mortuary Rolls from Canterbury: Devotional Links of Canterbury with Normandy and the Welsh March. Tradition and Change: Essays in Honour of Marjorie Chibnall. D. Greenway: 103-14.

Clark, C. (1976). 'People and Languages in Post-Conquest Canterbury.' Journal of Medieval History 2: 1-33. [see literature survey]

Clark, C. (1978). 'Women's Names in Post-Conquest England: Observations and Speculations.' Speculum 53: 223-251. [see literature survey]

Clark, C. (1979). 'Clark's First Three Laws of Anthroponymics.' Nomina 3: 1-18. [see literature survey]

Clark, C. (1980). 'Battle c. 1110: An Anthroponymist Looks at an Anglo-Norman New Town.' Anglo-Norman Studies 2: 21-41, 168-172. [see literature survey]

Clark, C. (1982). 'The Early Personal Names of King's Lynn: An Essay in Socio-Cultural History: part one-Personal Names.' Nomina 6: 51-71. [see literature survey]

Clark, C. (1983). 'The Early Personal Names of King's Lynn: An Essay in Socio-Cultural History: part two- By-Names.' Nomina 7: 65-89. [see literature survey]

Clark, C., and van Houts, E. (1985). 'British Library Additional MS. 40,000, ff. 1v-12r.' Anglo-Norman Studies 7: 50-68. [see literature survey]

Clark, C. (1985). 'The Liber Vitae of Thorney Abbey and its 'Catchment Area'.' Nomina 9: 53-72. [see literature survey]

Clark, C. (1987). 'English Personal Names ca. 650-1300.' Medieval Prosopography 8.1: 31-60.

Clark, C. (1987). A Witness-List to Post-Conquest English Cultural Patterns: the Liber Vitae of Thorney Abbey. Studies in honour of René Derolez. A. M. Simon-Vandenbergen: 73-85. [see literature survey]

Clark, C. (1992). Onomastics. The Cambridge History of the English Language, I: the beginnings to 1066. i: 452-89.

Clark-Maxwell, W. G. (1926). 'Some Letters of Confraternity.' Archaeologia 25 (2nd. ser.): 19-60.

Clark-Maxwell, W. G. (1929). 'Some Further Letters of Fraternity.' Archaeologia 25 (2nd. ser.): 179-216.

Constable, G. (1972). 'The Liber Memorialis of Remiremont.' Speculum 47: 261-77. [see literature survey]

Constable, G. (1985). 'Review of J. Wollasch (ed.), Synopse der cluniacensischen Necrologien. [Synopsis of Cluniac Necrologies].' Speculum 60: 208-11. [see literature survey]

Constable, G. (2000). The Commemoration of the Dead in the Early Middle Ages. Early Medieval Rome and the Christian West. J. M. Smith: 169-95.

Cowdrey, H. E. J. (1965). 'Unions and Confraternities with Cluny.' Journal of Eccelesiastical History 16: 152-62.

Cowdrey, H. E. J. (1984). Legal Problems by Agreements of Confraternity. Memoria. Der geschichtliche Zeugniswert des liturgischehen im Mittelalter. K. Schmid, and Wollasch, J.: 233-254.

Dickins, B. (1937). 'The Day of Byrhtnoth's Death and other obits from a Twelfth-Century Ely Calendar.' Leeds Studies in English 6: 14-24.

Dumville, D. N. (1985). The West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List and the Chronology of Early Wessex. Britons and Anglo-Saxons in the early middle ages. D. N. Dumville: 21-66.

Dumville, D. N. (1986). 'The West Saxon Genealogical List.' Anglia 104.

Dumville, D. N. (1991). 'On Dating Some Late Anglo-Saxon Liturgical Manuscripts.' Transactions of the Cambridge Bibliographical Society 10.1: 40-57.

Fleming, R. (1993). Christchurch's Sisters and Brothers: an Edition and Discussion of Canterbury Obituary Lists. The Culture of Christendom. M. Meyer: 115-53. [see literature survey]

Fleming, R. (1994). 'History and Liturgy at Pre-Conquest Christ Church.' Haskins Society Journal 6: 67-83. [see literature survey]

Forssner, T. (1916). Continental-Germanic Names in England in Old and Middle English Names.

Gameson, R. (1995). The Role of Art in the Late Anglo-Saxon Church.

Geary, P. (1985). 'Joint review of D. Geuenich et alii (eds.), Die Altarplatte von Reichenau-Niederzell; and G. Althoff and J. Wollasch (eds.), Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg and Lüneburg. [Altar Stone of Reichenau-Niederzell; and The Annals of Death of Merseburg, Magdeburg and Lüneburg.' Speculum 60: 675-8.

Gerchow, J. (1988-89). 'Societas et Fraternitas: A Report on a Research Project Based at the Universities of Freiburg and Münster.' Nomina 12: 153-74. [see literature survey]

Gerchow, J. (1992). Prayers for Cnut: the liturgical commemoration of a Conqueror. England in the eleventh century. C. Hicks: 219-38. [see literature survey]

Gerchow, J. (2003). The Origins of the Durham Liber Vitae. Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues. D. Rollason.

Geuenich, D. (1991). The St. Gall Confraternity of Prayer. The Culture of the Abbey of St. Gall: an overview. J. C. King, and Vogler, W.

Gneuss, H. (1985). Liturgical Books in Anglo-Saxon England and their Old English Terminology. Learning and Literature in Anglo-Saxon England: Studies presented to Peter Clemoes on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday. M. Lapidge, and Gneuss, H.: 91-141.

Harper, J. (1991). The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy.

Harper-Bill, C. (1980). 'The Piety of the Anglo-Norman Knightly Class.' Anglo-Norman Studies 2: 63-87.

Hlavacek, I. (2003). The Necrology of the 'Codex gigas' of Bohemia. Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues. D. Rollason.

Jackson, P., Ed. (1995). Words, Names and History: Selected Papers of Cecily Clark.

Jensen, G. F. (1968). Scandinavian Personal Names in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire.

Jensen, G. F. (1975). The Surnames of the Tenants of the Bishop of Lincoln in Nine English Counties. NORNA- Rapporter VIII: Binnam och Släknamm, avgränsning och urspring.

Keats-Rohan, K. S. B. (2003). Testimonies of the Living Dead: The Martyrology-Necrology and the Necrology in the Chapter Book of Mont-Saint-Michel (Avranches, Biblothèque municipale, MS 214). Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues. D. Rollason.

Keynes, S. (1996). Introduction. The Liber Vitae of the New Minster and Hyde Abbey, Winchester. S. Keynes. 26: 15-132.

Keynes, S. (2003). The Liber Vitae of the New Minster, Winchester. Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues. D. Rollason.

King, A. (1959). Liturgies of the past.

Mayr-Harting, H. (1981). 'Review of K. Schmid et alii (eds.), Die Klostergemeinschaft von Fulda im früheren Mittelalter (Munich 1978). [The Monastery Community of Fulda in the Early Middle Ages].' English Historical Review 96: 374-5.

McKinley, R. A. (1975). Norfolk and Suffolk Surnames in the Middle Ages.

McKinley, R. A. (1977). The Surnames of Oxfordshire.

McLaughlin, M. (1994). Consorting with Saints: prayer for the dead in early medieval France.

Moore, J. S. (1992). 'Family Entries in the Libri Vitae, c. 1050 to c. 1530: Part I.' Nomina 16: 99-128. [see literature survey]

Moore, J. S. (1994). 'Family Entries in the English Libri Vitae, c. 1050 to c. 1530: part II.' Nomina 18: 77-118. [see literature survey]

Paxton, F. S. (1990). Christianizing Death: the creation of a ritual process in early medieval Europe.

Peock, D. (1982). 'Cluniac Necrologies: a status report.' Medieval Prosopography 3: 27-62.

Piper, A. J. (1988). The Early Lists and Obits of the Durham Monks. Symeon of Durham: Historian of Durham and the North. D. Rollason: 161-201.

Piper, A. J. (2003). The Names of the Durham Monks. Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues. D. Rollason.

Rollason, D., Ed. (2003). Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues.

Rollason, D. (2003). The Liber Vitae in the Early Twelfth Century. Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues. D. Rollason.

Rollason, L. (2003). The Late Medieval Non-Monastic Entries in the Liber Vitae of Durham. Durham Liber Vitae: context and analogues. D. Rollason.

Searle, W. G. (1897). Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum: A List of Late Anglo-Saxon Proper Names from the time of Beda to that of King John.

Smart, V. (1968). Moneyers of the late Anglo-Saxon Coinage. Commentationes de nummis saeculorum ix-xi in Suecia reperties: 191-276.

Tsurushima, H. (1992). 'The Fraternity of Rochester Cathedral Priory about 1100.' Anglo-Norman Studies 14: 313-37. [see literature survey]

Tsurushima, H. (1999). Forging Unity between Monks and Laity in Anglo-Norman England: the fraternity of Ramsey Abbey. Negotiating Secular and Ecclesiastical Power: Western Europe in the Central Middle Ages. A.-J. Bijsterveld, Teunis H.B., Wareham, A.F: 133-148.

Tsushima, J. (1990). 'Impact- some reactions to foreign surnames: or the art of getting it wrong.' Nomina 14: 25-40.

von Feilitzen, O. (1937). The pre-Conquest Personal Names of Domesday Book.

von Feilitzen, O. (1945). 'Some Unrecorded Old and Middle English Personal Names.' Namn och Bygd 33.

von Feilitzen, O. (1968). 'Some Old English Uncompounded Personal Names and By-Names.' Studia Neophilologica 40: 5-16.

von Feilitzen, O. (1976). The Personal Names and Bynames of the Winton Domesday. Winchester in the early middle ages. M. Biddle.

Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. (1980). 'Review of O.G. Oexle, Forschungen zu monastischen und geistlichen Gemeinschaften (Munich, 1978). [Research on Monastic and Religious Communities].' English Historical Review 95: 195.

Wallis, C. (2002). The Liber Vitae of Thorney Abbey: a transcription and a case-study in personal names. MPhil Thesis: University of Birmingham.

Warren, F. E. (1885). 'An Anglo-Saxon Missal at Worcester.' The Academy 28: 394-5.

Wormald, F., Ed. (1934 (rpd 1988)). English Kalendars before A.D. 1100. Henry Bradshaw Society.

French Bibliography

Adigard des Gautries, J. (1954). Les Noms de Personnes Scandinaves en Normandie de 911 a 1066.

Béquet, J. Sevices post-funeraires dans le monastères limousins a l'époque romaine. L'Église et la mémoire des morts dans le franc médiévale. [The Church and memory of the dead in medieval France]. J.-L. Lemaître: 19-22.

Bernard, A., and Bruel, A., Ed. (1897-1903). Receuil des Chartes de l'Abbaye de Cluny [Compilation of the Charters of the Abbey of Cluny]. Paris.

Bratto, O. (1956). 'Notes d'anthroponymie messine.' Göteborgs Universitets Arsskrify 72(4).

Duboir, J. (1986). Obituaries et martyrologies. [Obituaries and martyrologies]. L'Église et la mémoire des morts dans le franc médiévale. [The Church and memory of the dead in medieval France]. J.-L. Lemaître.

Falkenstein, L. (1986). La calendrier des commemoraisons fixés pour les communautés associées a l'abbaye de Rémi aucours du XIIe siècle. [The calendars of recorded commemoration for the communities associated with the abbey of St. Remy during the twelfth century]. L'Église et la mémoire des morts dans le franc médiévale. [The Church and memory of the dead in medieval France]. J.-L. Lemaître: 23-31.

Fovaiux, J. (1986). 'Amassez vous de trésors dans le ciel': les lists d'obits du chapitre cathédral de Laon. ['Collect the treasures of the sky': the lists of obits of the cathedral chapter of Laon]. L'Église et la mémoire des morts dans le franc médiévale. [The Church and memory of the dead in medieval France]. J.-L. Lemaître.

Huyghebaert, N. (1972). Les documents nécrologiques.

Lauwers, M. (1996). La mémoire des ancêtres, le souci des morts. Morts, rites et société au moyen age. [The memory of ancestors, concern for the dead: Death, rites and society in the middle ages].

Lemaître, J.-L. (1984). Liber Capituli: Le livre du chapître, des origines au XVIe siècle - l'exemple français. [Liber Capituli: The Book of the Chapter, from its Origins in the 16th century - a French Example]. Memoria. K. Schmid, and Wollasch, J. Munich: 625-48.

Lemaître, J.-L., Ed. (1986). L'Église et la mémoire des morts dans le franc médiévale. [The Church and memory of the dead in medieval France].

Lemaître, J.-L. (1986). Obituaires, calendriers et liturgie paroissiale. [Obituaries, kalendars and parish liturgy. L'Église et la mémoire des morts dans le franc médiévale. [The Church and memory of the dead in medieval France]. J.-L. Lemaître: 132-52.

Michaelsson, K. (1954). L'antroponymie et la statistique. Quatrième congrés international des sciences onomastiques.

Molinier, A. (1890). Les Obituaires français au Moyen Age. [French Obituaries in the Middle Ages]. Paris.

Morlet, M. T. (1968). Les noms issus du germanique continental et les créations gallo-germaniques.

Wollasch, J. (1979). 'Les obituaires, témoins de la vie clunisienne. [Obituaries, Evidence of Cluniac Life].' Cahiers de civilisation médiévale. [Notes on medieval Civilisation] 22: 139-71.

German Bibliography

Althoff, G., Ed. (1978). Das Necrolog von Borghorst: Edition und Untersuchung. [The Borghorst Necrology: Edition and Research]. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Westfalen XL, Westfälische Gedenkbücher und Necrologien. [Publications of the Historical Commission for Westphalia XL, Westphalian Commemorative Books and Necrologies]. Münster.

Althoff, G. (1983). Necrologabschriften aus Sachsen im Reichenauer Verbrüderungsbuch. [Necrology Texts from Saxony in the Reichenau Confraternity Book]. Festgabe für Gerd Tellenbach [Festschrift for Gerd Tellenbach]. 131: 91-108.

Althoff, G., and Wollasch, J., Ed. (1983). Die Totenbücher von Merseburg, Magdeburg und Lüneburg. [The Annals of the Dead of Merseburg, Magdeburg and Lüneburg]. Monumenta Germanica Historica: Libri Memoriales et Necrologia, n.s. 2. Hanover.

Althoff, G. (1984). Adels- und Königsfamilien im Spiegel der Memorialüberlieferung: Studien zum Totengedenken der Billunger and der Ottonen. [Noble and Royal Families as Represented in the Commemorative Records: Studies on the Commemorative Tradition of the Dead among the Billung and the Ottonians].

Althoff, G. (1986). Zur Verflechtung der Führungsschichten in den Gedenkquellen des frühen 10. Jahrhunderts. [On the Interconnections between the Leading Figures in the Memorial Records of the early 10th century]. Medieval Lives and the Historian: Studies in Medieval Prosopography. N. Bulst, and Genet, J.P. Kalamazoo: 37-71.

Althoff, G. (1987). ''Unüberwindliche Schwierigkeiten' ? Eine Entgegnung ['Insoluble Difficulties' ? A Reply].' Zeitschrift für Geschichte des Oberheins. [Journal for Upper Rhine History] 135: 100-2.

Althoff, G., and Schmid, K. (1989 (at press)). Amicitiae: Kommentierte Dokumentation einer Bündnisbewegung durch Verbrüderungen und Freundschaften im beginnenden 10. Jahrhundert. [Amicitiae: A Documentation with Commentary on a Trend to Alliances through Confraternity and Friendship in the early 10th Century]. Hanover.

Althoff, G. (1992). Amicitae und Pacta: Bündnis, Einung, Politik und Gebetsgedenken im beginnenden 10. Jahrhundert. [Amicitiae and Pacta: Bonds, Unification, Politics and Commemoration in Prayer in the early 10th Century]. Hanover. [See literature survey]

Althoff, G., and Wollasch, J. (2000), Bleiben die Libri Memoriales stumm? Eine Erwiderung auf H. Hoffmann. [Must the Libri Memoriales remain dumb?: a reply to H. Hoffmann] Deutsches Archiv. [German Archives]56: 33-53 [See literature survey]

Angenendt, A., Schmid K, and others, Ed. (1989 (at press)). Der Memorial- und Liturgie Codex von San Salvatore/ Santa Giulia in Brescia. [The Commemoration and Liturgy Codex of San Salvatore/ Santa Giulia in Brescia]. Monumenta Germanica Historica: Libri Memoriales et Necrologia, n.s. 4.

Angenendt, A. (1984). Theologie und Liturgie der mittelalterlichen Totenmemoria. [Theology and Liturgy in the medieval Commemoration of Death]. Memoria:. K. Schmid, and Wollasch, J. Munich: 79-199.

Autenrieth, J. (1975). 'Das St. Galler Verbrüdererungsbuch. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen paläographischer Bestimmung. [The St. Gallen Confraternity Book. The Feasibility and Limits of palaeographic Classification].' Frühmittelalterliche Studien. [Early Medieval Studies] 9: 215-225.

Autenrieth, J. (1977). Der Codex Sangallensis 915: Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung der Kapiteloffiziumsbücher. [The Codex Sangallensis 915: a contribution to research on the Book of Chapter Records]. Landesgeschichte und Geistesgeschichte : Festschrift für Otto Herdinger. [History of the State and History of Ideas: Festschrift for Otto Herdinger]: 42-55.

Autenrieth, J., Geuenich, D., and Schmid, K., Ed. (1979). Das Verbrüderungsbuch der Abtei Reichenau (Einleitung, Register, Faksimile).[The Confraternity Book of the Abbey of Reichenau (Introduction, Index, Facsimile) Monumenta Germanica Historica Libri Memoriales et Necrologia, n.s. 1.

Becher, H. (1983). 'Das königliche Frauenkloster San Salvatore/ Santa Giulia in Brescia im Spiegel seiner Memorialüberlieferung. [The Royal Nunnery of San Salvatore/Santa Giulia as reflected in the Commemorative Records].' Frühmittelalterliche Studien. [Early Medieval Studies] 17: 299-392.

Bethmann, C. L. (1877). 'Das Evangelienhandschrift zu Cividale. [The Handwriting used with the Gospels of Cividale].' Neues Archiv. [New Archive] 2: 111-128.

Borgholte, M., Geuenich, D., and Schmid, K., Ed. (1986). Subsidia Sangallensa I: Materialen und Untersuchungen zu den Verbrüderungsbüchern und zu den älteren Urkunden des Stiftsarchivs St. Gallen. [Subsidia Sangallensa I: Materials and Research on the Confraternity Books and Older Documents from the St. Gallen Monastery Archives]. St. Galler Kultur und Geschichte. [St. Gallen Culture and History]. St. Gall.

Bruckner, A., Sennhauser, H.R., and Perret, F., Ed. (1973). Liber Viventium Fabariensis: Stiftsarchiv St, Gallen, Fonds, Pfäfers Codex 1, I: Faksimile Edition. [Liber Viventium Fabariensis: St. Gallen Abbey]

Archive, Fonds Pfäfers Codex 1, I:Facsimile Edition. Basle.

Decker-Hauer, A. (1998). Studien zur Memorialüberlieferung im Frühmittelalterlichen Paris.[Studies on Memorial Records in the Early Middle Ages].

Doll, A., and Gloeckner, K., Ed. (1979). Traditiones Wizenburgenses: Die Urkunden des Klosters Weissenburg, 661-884. [Traditiones Wizenburgenses: Documents of the Monastery

of Weissenburg, 661-864]. Arbeiten des Historischen Kommission. [Work of the Historical Commission]. Darmstadt.

Dümmler, E., and Wartmann, H. (1869). 'St. Galler Todtenbuch und Verbrüderungen. [St. Gallen Book of the Dead and Fraternities].' 'H. Wartmann Mitteilungen zur Vaterländischen Kultur. [H. Wartmann Contributions on the Nation's Culture] 11: 1-124.

Forstner, K., Ed. (1974). Das Verbrüderungsbuch von St. Peter in Salzburg: Vollständige Faksimile-Ausgabe im Originalformat der Handschrift Al aus dem Archiv St. Peter in Salzburg. [The Confraternity Book of St. Peter in Salzburg: Complete Facsimile-Edition in Original Format in Al Script from the St. Peter's Archive in Salzburg]. Codices Selecti. Graz.

Förster, M. (1943). 'Zur Geschichte des Reliquienkultus in Altengland. [On the History of the Cult of Reliquaries in Old England].' Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akadamie de Wissenschaften, Phil.-Hist. Abt. [Reports to meetings of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Philological-Historical Section] 8.

Fried, J. (1987). 'Zur Methode der Necrologieauswertung: Bemerkungen zu einem neuen Buch. [On Methods of Analysing Necrologies: Notes on a new book].' Zeitschrift für Geschichte des Oberheins. [Journal for Upper Rhine History] 135: 87-99.

Friese, E., Geuenich, D., and Wollasch, J., Ed. (1986). Das Martyr-Necrolog von St. Emmeram zu Regensburg. [The Martyr-Necrology of St. Emmeram, Regensburg]. Monumenta Germanica Historica: Libri et Necrologia, n.s. 3 B. Hanover.

Gerchow, J. (1988). Der Gedenküberlieferung der Angelsachsen, mit einem Katalog der Libri Vitae und der Necrologien. [Anglo-Saxon Commemorative Tradition, with a Catalogue of Libri Vitae and Necrologies]. Berlin and New York.

Geuenich, D. (1975). 'Die ältere Geschichte von Pfäfers im Spiegel der Mönchlisten des Liber Vivientium Fabariensis. [The Early History of Pfäfers as Reflected in the List of Monks in the Liber Vivientium Fabariensis].' Frühmittelalterliche Studien. [Early Medieval Studies] 9: 226-52.

Geuenich, D. (1976). Die Personennamen der Klostergemeinschaft von Fulda im frühen Mittelalter. [Personal Names in the Monastery Community at Fulda in the early Middle Ages].

Geuenich, D., and Lohr, A. (1978). 'Der Einsatz der EDV [elektronische Datenverarbeitung] bei der Lemmatisierung mittelalterlichen Personenname. [The Use of EDP [Electronic Data Processing] in the Lemmatising of medieval personal names].' Onoma 22: 554-585.

Geuenich, D., Neumuellers-Klauser, R., and Schmid K., Ed. (1983). Die Altarplatte von Reichenau-Niederzell. [The Altar-Stone of Reichenau-Niederzell]. Monumenta Germanica Historica: Memoriales et Necrologia, n.s. I, (Supplementum). Hanover.

Geuenich, D. (1989 (at press)). Gebetsgedenken und anianische Reform: Beobachtungen zu den Verbrüderungsbeziehungen der Äbte im Reich des Ludwig dem Frommen. [Commemoration in Prayer and Anianian Reform: Observations on confraternity relationships among abbots in the Empire of Louis the Pious]. Monastische Reformen im 9. und 10. Jahrhundert, Vorträge und Forschungen. [Monastic Reforms in the 9. and 10. Centuries, Lectures and Research]. R. Kottje, and Maurer, H.

Geuenich, D., Oexle, O.G, and Schmid, K. (1989 (at press)). 'Listen monastischer und geistlicher Gemeinschaften des Mittelalters. [Lists of monastic and religious communities in the Middle Ages].' Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften. [Munster Medieval Manuscripts] 49.

Henel, H. (1934). Studien zum altenglischen Computatus. [Studies of Old English Computations]. Leipzig.

Hlawitschka, E., Schmid, K., and Tellenbach, G., Ed. (1970). Liber Memorialis von Remiremont. [Liber Memorialis of Remiremont]. Dublin and Zurich.

Lehmann-Brockhaus, O. (1956). Lateinische Schriftquellen zur Kunst in England,Wales und Scotland vom Jahre 901 bis zum Jahre 1307. [Latin Manuscript Sources on Art in England, Wales and Scotland from the year 901 to 1307]. Munich.

Mitis, O. v. (1949). 'Bemerkungen zu den Verbrüderungsbüchern und deren Genealogischem Wert. [Notes on Confraternity Books and Their Value for Genealogical Research].' Zeitschrift für Schweizerische Kirchengeschichte. [Journal of Swiss Church History] 43: 28-42.

Müssigbrod, A. (1985). 'Zur ältesten Schicht der Toteneinträge im Necrolog von Moissac. [On the Oldest Group of Entries into the Names of the Dead entered into the Moissac Necrology].' Frühmittelalterliche Studien. [Early Medieval Studies] 29: 350-378.

Müssigbrod, A., and Wollasch, J., Ed. (1988). Das Martyrolog-Necrolog von Moissac-Duravel. [The Martyrology-Necrology of Moissac-Duravel]. Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften. [Münster Medieval Manuscripts].

Neiske, F., Ed. (1979). Das ältere Necrolog von S. Savino in Piacenza: Edition und Untersuchung der Anlage. [The earlier Necrology of St. Savino in Piacenza: Edition und Examination of the Manuscript]. Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften. [Münster Medieval Manuscripts]. Munich.

Oexle, O. G. (1978). Forschungen zu monastischen und geistlichen Gemeinschaften im westfränkischen Bereich. [Research on monastic and religious communities in the Western Frankish area].

Oexle, O. G. (1979). 'Memoria und Memorialüberlieferung im früheren Mittelalter. [Commemoration and Commemorative Tradition in the Early Middle Ages].' Frühmittelalterliche Studien. [Early Medieval Studies] 10: 70-96.

Oexle, O. G. (1983). Die Gegenwart der Toten. [The Dead in the Present]. Death in the Middle Ages, Medievalia Lovanensia. H. Braet, and Verbeke, W.: 19-77.

Oexle*, O. G. (1983). Memoria: der historische Zeugniswert liturgischen Gedenkens im Mittelalter. [Memoria: The Historical Value as Evidence of liturgical Commemoration in the Middle Ages]: 384-440.

Sauer, H. (1983). 'Die 72 Völker und Sprachen der Welt: ein mittelalterliche Topos in der englischen Literatur. [The 72 Peoples and Nationalities of the World: a medieval Topos in English Literature].' Anglia 101: 29-48.

Sauer, H. (1993). Fundatio und Memoria: Stifler und Klostergrunder im Bild. 1100 bis 1350. [Foundation and Memory].

Schmid, K. (1967). 'Über das Verhältnis von Person und Gemeinschaft im früheren Mittelalter. [On the Relationship between the Person and the Community in the early Middle Ages].' Frühmittelalterliche Studien. [Early Medieval Studies] 1: 225-49.

Schmid, K. (1974). 'Programmatisches zur Erforschung der mittelalterlichen Personen und Personengruppen. [Programming issues relating to research into medieval people and social groups].' Frühmittelalterliche Studien. [Early Medieval Studies] 8(5): 116-30.

Schmid, K., and Oexle, O.G. (1974). 'Voraussätzungen und Wirkung des Gebetsbundes von Attigny. [Requirements and Effects of the Prayer Alliance of Attigny].' Francia 2.

Schmid, K., and Wollasch, J. (1975). 'Societas et Fraternitas: Begründung eines kommentierten Quellenwerkes zur Erforschung von Personen und Personengruppen des Mittelalters. [Societas et Fraternitas: Reasons for an annotated Work on the Sources for Research into Persons and Social Groups of the Middle Ages].' Frühmittelalterliche Studien. [Early Medieval Studies] 9: 1-48.

Schmid, K., Geuenich, D., and Wollasch, J. (1977). 'Auf dem Weg zu einem neuen Personennamenbuch des Mittelalters. [On the Route to a new Personal Name Book for the Early Middle Ages].' Onoma 22: 355-83.

Schmid, K., and others, Ed. (1978). Die Klostergemeinschaft von Fulda im früheren Mittelalter. [The Monastery Community of Fulda in the early Middle Ages]. Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften. [Münster Medieval Manuscripts]. Munich.

Schmid, K. (1979). 'Das Liturgische Gebetsdenken in seiner historischen Relevanz am Beispiel der Verbrüderungsbewegung des früheren Mittelalters. [Liturgical Commemorative Prayer and its Historical Relevance, using the Confraternity Movement of the early Middle Ages as an Example].' Freiburger Diözesan-Archiv. [Freiburg Diocesan Archive] 99 [IC]: 20-44.

Schmid, K. (1982). Wer waren die 'fratres' von Halberstadt aus der Zeit von König Heinrich I. [Who were the 'brothers' of Halberstadt at the time of King Henry I]. Festschrift für Berent Schwinekoeper. [Festschrift for Berent Schwinekoeper]. H. Maurer, Patze, H. Sigmaringen: 117-40.

Schmid, K., and Wollasch, J., Ed. (1983). Der Liber Vitae der Abtei Corvey: Einleitung, Register, Faksimile. [ The Liber Vitae of the Abbey of Corvey: Introduction, Index, Facsimile]. Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Westfalen: Westfälische Gedenkbücher and Nekrologie. [Publications of the Historical Commission for Westphalia: Westphalian Confraternity Books and Necrologies]. Wiesbaden.

Schmid, K. (1983). Probleme der Erschliessung des Salzburger Verbrüderungsbuches. [Problems in accessing the Salzburg Confraternity Book]. Frühes Mönchtum in Salzburg. [Early Monasticism in Salzburg]. E. Zwink. Salzburg: 175-195.

Schmid, K. (1984). 'Zur amicitia zwischen Heinrich I und dem westfränkischen König Robert im Jahre 923. [On the amicitia between Henry I and the West Frankish King Robert in the year 923].' Francia 12: 119-47.

Schmid, K., and Wollasch, J., Ed. (1984). Memoria: der historische Zeugniswert liturgischen Gedenkens im Mittelalter. [Memoria: The Historical Value as Evidence of liturgical Commemoration in the Middle Ages]. Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften. [Münster Medieval Manuscripts]. Munich.

Schmid, K. (1985). 'Zum Quellenwert der Verbrüderungsbücher von St. Gallen und Reichenau. [On the Value as Sources of the Confraternity Books of St. Gallen and Reichenau].' Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters. [German Archive for Research into the Middle Ages] 40: 345-89.

Schmid, K. (1986). Bemerkungen zu den Synodalverbrüderungen der Karolinger Zeit. [Notes on the Synodal Confraternities in the Carolingian Period]. Sprache und Recht: Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte des Mittelalters: Festschrift für R. Schmid-Wiegand zum 60. Geburtstag. [Language and Law: Contributions to the History of Civilisation in the Middle Ages. Festschrift for R. Schmid-Wiegand on his 60. birthday]. Berlin and New York: 693-710.

Schmid, K. (1986). Das Zeugnis der Verbrüderungsbücher zur Slawenmission. [The Evidence from the Confraternity Books on the Mission to the Slavs]. Das Zeugnis der Verbrüderungsbücher zur Slawenmission' in H. Dopsch, ed., Salzburg und die Slawenmission: zum 1100. Todestag des hl. Methodius. [Salzburg and the Mission to the Slavs: on the 1100th anniversary of the death St. Methodius]. H. Dopsch. Salzburg: 185-205.

Schmid, K. (1986). Das ältere und das neuendeckte jüngere St. Galler Verbrüderungsbuch. [The older and recently discovered newer St. Gallen Confraternity Book]. Subsidia Sangallensia. M. Borgholte, Geuenich, D., and Schmid, K. 1: 15-38.

Schmid, K. (1988). 'Zum Einsatz der EDV in der mittelalterlicher Personenforschung. [On the Utilisation of EDP for Research on Persons from the Middle Ages].' Frühmittelalterliche Studien. [Early Medieval Studies] 22: 53-69.

Schmid, K. (1989 (at press)). Zeugnisse der Memorialüberlieferung aus der Zeit Ludwigs des Frommen. [Evidence from the Commemorative Documents of the Time of Louis the Pious]. Charlemagne's Heir: New Perpectives on the Reign of Louis the Pious. R. Collins, and Godman, P. Oxford.

Schmid, K., and others, Ed. (1989 (at press)). Die Nameneinträge in den Gedenkbuechern des früheren Mittelalters. [The Entry of Names into Confraternity Books of the Early Middle Ages].

Schneider, M. J. (1985). Eine Datenbank zur Erforschung von Personen und Personengruppen des Früh- und Hochmittelalters. [A Database for Research into Persons and Social Groups in the Early and High Middle Ages]. Freiburg.

unidentified (1978). Methoden personen-geschichtlicher Erforschung des Sozialgeschichte Mittelalters. [Methods of Historical Research at the Level of Persons in the Middle Ages], Sektionsbeiträge zum 32. Deutschen Historikertag Hamburg 1978 mit einem Bericht über das Kommentierte Quellenwert zur Erforschung der Personen und Personengruppen des Mittelalters 'Societas et Fraternitas'. [Section Report to the 'Societas and Fraternitas Group' at the 32nd Conference of German Historians, 1978, with an analysis on the Value of Sources for Research into Persons and Social Groups in the Middle Ages].

Vogler, W., Ed. (1985). Die Abtei Pfäfers, Geschichte und Kultur. [The Abbots of Pfäfers, History and Culture]. St. Gallen.

Wollasch, J. (1977). 'Neue Methoden der Erforschung des Mönchtums im Mittelalter. [New Methods of Research into Medieval Monasticism].' Historische Zeitschrift. [Historical Journal] 225: 529-71.

Wollasch, J. (1980). 'Zu den Anfängen liturgischen Gedenks an Personen und Personengruppen in den Bodenseeklöstern. [On the Beginnings of liturgical Commemoration of people and social groups in the Lake Constance Monasteries].' Freiburger Diözesan-Archiv. [Freiburg Diocesan Archive]: 59-78.

Wollasch, J., Ed. (1982). Synopse der cluniacensischen Necrologien. [Synopsis of the Cluniac Necrologies]. Münstersche Mittelalter-Schriften. [Münster Medieval Manuscripts]. Munich.

Wollasch, J. (1983). Mönchtum der Mittelalters zwischen Kirche und Welt. [Medieval Monasticism between the Church and the World]. Munich.

Wollasch, J. (1984). Die mittelalterliche Lebensform der Verbrüderung. [The medieval form of Confraternity]. K. Schmid, and Wollasch, J., Memoria: der historische Zeugniswert liturgischen Gedenkens im Mittelalter: 215-32.

English Literature Survey

    Bijsterveld (1999), The Commemoration of Patrons and Gifts in Chronicles

  • This article arises out of a research project on gift exchange as an agent of social and political integration and challenges the idea that charters, chronicles and memorial texts should necessarily be placed in discrete categories to inform the histories of property, law, politics and religion. The author argues that each of these texts fulfilled a multipliciy of secular and ecclesiastical functions, drawing up modern authorites such as Fichtenau, Johanek and Geary to illustrate the point for charters and chronicles. In relation to memorial records, he quotes, Oexle* (1983): 'memoria was not only a religious phenomenon, but also included the assurance of legal interests and possessions, historiography and legal memory' (p. 394).

    Bijsterveld looks at a group of sources in relation to three monastic houses to illustrate interlocking aspects of these arguments, and in relation to the overlapping roles of memorial books and cartulary-chronicles focuses upon the example of the texts of the abbey of Saint-Hubert in the Ardennes.

    He rejects the view that there were fifty-three 'lost' charters and suggests that they may never have existed. He goes on to observe that the Chronicle only records the gifts of high status owners, and encourages historians to make greater use of the memorial text (the liber capituli) of the abbey. It commemorates benefactors, including those of lower social origins, whose names were recited daily etc. In short, the LC provides a more comprehensive (if not as detailed) record of gift exchanges between the secular and ecclesiastical spheres than the Chronicle.

  • Blows (1991), A Glastonbury obit list

  • This article draws attention to an under-used source, a unique list of twenty-seven obits, relating to Glastonbury abbey. Blows observes that it must have been compiled from earlier documents in several stages and that the list reached its present form well before the date of the present manuscript.

    He suggests that the list of the earliest abbots in the obit list is connected to the endowments which these men made in establishing the community, and demonstrates through later examples links between gifts and inclusion in the list. Also makes the point that the source enables us to identify otherwise unknown obits of lay benefactors and abbots of Glastonbury.

  • Burton (1979), A confraternity list

  • This article begins by providing a descriptive analysis of the manuscript, pointing out that it was written by one major hand and three secondary hands, and embodied materials from the period before c. 1180. It is an unusual text in comparison to its counterparts because of the large numbers of religious houses with which the York community established relationships. Burton notes that this included houses which were not Benedictine communities and the links which were established over great distances, notably with twenty religous houses in France. Burton draws attention to way in which confraternity relationships could support a range of other links (political etc.).

  • Clark (1976), People and Languages in post-Conquest Canterbury

  • This article uses onomastics, supplemented by analysis of hands and languages of the manuscript to investigate the interaction between English and French in the post-Conquest period at Canterbury. Linguistic biases of the scribes are investigated as well as nicknames. Clark concludes that the domination of English is demonstrated by its exclusive use to describe topographical features, and it was not superseded by French although the two languages remained in competition. In terms of personal names, French forms even when coupled with Anglo-Saxon personal names were on the whole less original and picturesque than English ones.

  • Clark (1978), Womens' Names in Post Conquest England

  • This articles focuses upon womens' names as way of analysing the relations between the Normans and the English in the post-Conquest period. Clark rejects the view that naming patterns were a product of fashion, and draws upon examples of aristocrats, monks, burgesses and peasants from a range of local studies (English and French).

    She suggests that in an English context womens' names were much more likely to be insular, archaic and drawn from a relatively narrow stock of common names. Those developments are in turn connected to greater immigration by men from France into England combined with the tendency for daughters rather than sons to be named after their mothers and other kinswomen. She concludes this essay: 'high politics tells one tale, and tells it in a clear and dominating voice; but the story quietly lived out in the towns and in manor houses has a different theme as well as a different style'.

  • Clark (1979), Clark's First Three Laws of Anthroponymics

  • 1. In any homogeneous community, naming behaviour will remain constant, except when disturbed by outside influence.

    2. In any community previously characterized by uniform naming-behaviour, reactions to a uniform outside influence will likewise be uniform

    3. In any homogeneous community, any variations in the effects of an outside influence on naming-behaviour will be proportional to variations in the strength of that influence.

    Clark draws upon a series of local and regional studies which make use of sources ranging from saints' lives to charters and feets of fines on personal names to demonstrate relationships between densities of setttlement by Scandinavians and onomastic evidence. She also notes that amongst womens' names Scandinavian forms are less common than for mens' forms, similar to Clark's conclusions for the Anglo-Norman period.

  • Clark (1980), An anthroponymist looks at an Anglo-Norman new town

  • This article combines the evidence of onomastics with the narrative of the Battle Abbey Chronicle to argue for a high degree of cosmopolitanism within an urban context. Clark notes, moreover, that although there are insufficient numbers of womens' names to sustain a study. There is discussion of patronymics, occupational names etc. She concludes that there was a high degree of immigration into Battle from Normandy by burgesses and a high degree of cultural assimiliation between French and English languages and people within the town.

  • Clark (1982), Early personal names of King's Lynn: Baptismal names

  • The author follows a familiar framework to suggest that twelfth-century England affords an ideal laboratory for testing personal names as a source which can reveal the balance between several competing alliances, not in black and white, but in gradations through time and space. She concludes that womens' names were about a generation more old fashioned than the corresponding names for men and connects that time-lage to lower densities of settlement by women.

  • Clark (1983), Early personal names of King's Lynn: By-Names

  • This complementary article starts off by observing some of the differences between by-names and baptismal names as sources of evidence. Clarke notes that not all patronymic, occupational and residential quailifiers found in this material represent forms in regular eveyday use, and bear the signs of having been invented on ad-hoc basis by the scribe. She notes that analysis of by-names requires more than etymological analysis, and notes problems of analysis caused by the fact that by-names lack the semantic context of baptismal names. By-names can be divided into the following categories: (a) family relationships; (b) place-names; (c) occupation or rank; (d) miscelleneous characteristics. As regards (b) we can distinguish between

    (i) locative place-names (ii) topographical elements derived from the rural/urban landscape; (iii) places of present domicile and (iv) family origins. The author goes on to note, following McKinley, that the transference of mens' by-names to their wives only became a regular custom after c. 1400. More detailed discussion follows looking at issues such as contrasts between the use of common occupational by-names and those more related to trades closely associated with King's Lynn; and discussion of place by-names in relation to King's Lynn's immediate hinterland and further afield.

  • Clark (1985), British Library Additional MS. 40,000, ff. 1v.-12r

  • In this article Clark provides an overview of the manuscript, followed by a description of the ways in which the spellings of names changes in terms of preferences. She moves on to discuss whether enrolments made by diverse hands were normally contemporaneous with the lives of the names of those who were enterred. She goes on to raise questions such as whether family members from different generations are enrolled together, and who was the prime mover. Discussion is also given over to whether figures such as the wife of the archdeacon may be referring to the wife of Henry of Huntingdon. Ends by asking why the Thorney Liber Vitae fell into disuse during the second quarter of the twelfth century, and suggests may be connected to some general change in liturgy and theology.

  • Clark (1985), The Liber Vitae of Thorney Abbey and its catchment area

  • The author starts off by making the point that there is no lay settlement at Thorney and hence that its catchment area relates to the areas from which its donors and patrons resided. In this context Clark makes the point that figures such as Odo 'of Beverley' in all likelihood belonged not to a Yorkshire, but a Huntingdonshire family. By making the links between Red Book of Thorney and the Liber Vitae of Thorney, Clark demonstrates the links between temporal, spiritual and economic affairs.

  • Clark (1987), A Witness to Post-Conquest English Cultural Patterns

  • Clark turns to the evidence of changing personal names to discuss shifts in the use of personal names as changing evidence of cultural patterns. Following on from earlier comparisons of the Thorney Liber Vitae and the Red Book of Thorney she discusses wider issues such as the links between the appearance of names in the Liber Vitae, providing gifts to Thorney and recruitment of oblates from those families. As in earlier article, Clark then turns attention to look at relationships between script and spelling variations, and notes that variations for womens' names are much greater than for men which could perhaps be related to differences in documentary coverage.

  • Constable (1972), Review of the Liber Memorialis of Remiremont

  • The reviewer begins by commentating that the key to advances in medieval studies lies not in the discovery of previously unknown sources but in the use of materials previously regarded as useless. Constable then moves on to outline the division of the LMR text, which comprises (a) commemoration book with around 11,500 names (b) three full necrologies (c) cartulary containing records of 3,000 grants (d) a rent book. Contrasts LMR with DLV, a 'pure and simple' liber vitae, and goes on to discuss one of the distinctive features of the LMR; namely the high-proportion of short commemoration entries, many of them probably made in the presence of individuals named.

    He then goes on to describe the technical apparatus provided by the study, notably the way in which each entry, whether unified or scattered on the page, is given a unit/number. The reviewer goes on to provide a critical analysis of the indices, and then moves on to discuss Oskar Mitis's work on establishing family relationships (pp. 266-70). This discussion forms the core of the review article. He points out that family relationships can be identified through internal evidence—repetition etc. This enables the historian to construct kinship charts (as distinct from genealogical trees) showing the links between influential families and individuals over wide areas and time periods. Within this framework Constable goes on to discuss different secular and ecclesiastical ranks, beginning with high-ranking seculars. Notes inter alia that the mention of fifty bishops from the ninth and tenth centuries witnesses the widespread influence of Remiremont at this stage, and discusses the wider kinship circle of the nun, Geza, and the advocate, Gerard, as discussed by Hlawitschka. In discussion of donation entries—above (c)—goes on to discuss lower social ranks connected with the abbey.

    Constable ends the review with general comments on commemorative records as representing 'older and less personal current of spirituality, in which groups of men and women bound by ties of kinship stood together in battle against oblivion, confidant that their memory, enshrined in prayers and masses of the nuns, would find them favour in the eyes of the almighty'. (p. 277)

  • Constable (1985), Review of Synopse der cluniacenischen Necrologien

  • This review article provides a review of a series of Cluniac necrologies, which with one exception were previously unpublished. Constable notes that these materials will be useful to philologists, prosopographers, demographers and the study of monasticism and medieval society generally, but warns many scholars will find these editions 'incomprehensible' and it will only be used by a few. He notes that it provides a source for the names of 96,000 dead people, with just over half comprising Cluniac monaches, the rest being familiares. He discusses the ways in which a system of arrows identifies repetition of names, references to dates, and attention is drawn to the variation between different months; in one month women's names comprise a third of the entries, but in another month only four percent.

    The review also provides an outline of the introductory material, divided between (a) introduction and indices—introduction provides commentary on Cluniac necrologies generally by Wollasch; (b) Neiske on preparation and presentation of material; (c) lemmatization of personal names; (d) description of the manuscript.

  • Fleming (1993), Christ Church's sisters and brothers

  • This article provides a descrition of the manuscripts relating to the commemoration of benefactors at Christ Church, Canterbury. In a tabular form sets out the details of B.L. manuscript Cotton Nero C ix, fos. 19r-21v; fos. 3-18v.; Cotton Galba E iii, 2, fos. 32r-34r and indices of people and places pp. 124-53. It is prefaced by an introduction which enables the author to comment that the Canterbury calendars give us a different picture of the community's benefactors than do the charters, bringing all of the people who participated in gifts into the nexus of Christ Church's prayers.

  • Fleming (1994), History and Liturgy at Pre-Conquest Christ Church

  • This article provides an analysis of texts discussed in Fleming (1992). The author observes that these sources have either been misused or underused, and notes that 'no one has ever attempted to understand the relationships of each of these Christ Church texts to others or a variety of pre-Conquest material emanating from Canterbury' (p. 68). The author begins by discussing Oswulf's ninth-century charter in favour of the community at Christ Church which deals with the obligations of commemoration placed upon the community in exchange for gifts. The author notes that no longer extant obituary evidence reached back into the eighth century, that it would have been impossible for the community to keep track of the dates, deaths and rituals without accounting methods. Discussion then moves on to assess the ways in which these obituary texts do not provide comprehensive coverage of donors and patrons. Partly that stems from the tendency of donors to organize their commemoration days on saints' feasts days etc., but it also arose from subsequent pruning and editing of commemorative records by the Canterbury community. For example, the fact that the Mercian kings were memorialized for gifts which were restitutions of property originally given by members of competing dynasties suggests that material was reworked. Fleming then discusses of the erasures of the names of the late eighth and ninth-century allies of Mercian hegemony as a result of increasing West Saxon hegemony in the third quarter of the ninth century. Attention is then shifted towards the removal of clerks' names from the obituary lists so as to provide a more monastic image of the community. The article concludes with that obituary lists are more to do with the history of monastic property as with the histories of patrons.

  • Gerchow (1988-9), 'Societas et fraternitas': a report on research project

  • The article written by Gerchow is helpful in identifying three major strands of scholarship by German scholars, noting that early medieval commemorative records have attracted far more attention than their later medieval counterparts. These strands comprise: (a) study of the context in which commemorative records developed—notably work by Angenendt (b) development of monastic life—notably the internal organization of houses and their relationships with the secular world—notably work of Wollasch on Cluniacs (c) illumination of associations which linked social groupings and households, notably work by Althoff and Schmid. Developing out of these three schemes other scholars have focused upon new sets of methodologies: Friese: (Studien zum Einzugsberich der Klostergemeinshaft) brought together onomastics and prosopography to explore familial, social, institutional and territorial connections of around 600 monks Geuenich: brought together onomastic and philological studies to look at name frequencies, status of the bearers of the different types of names, phonology and orthography. The following methodological tools were adopted: a. lemmatization of all personal names using DMP {Datenbank zur Erforschung mittelaltericher Personen und Personnengruppen} distinguishing between name word themes, suffixes and inflections index of uncertain readings c. an index of name-entries with territorial bynames d. an index of titles e. an index of place-names f. identification of entries by scribe—with full descriptions of the hand if it appears more than five times.

    In general the variations in the format of the memorial books has sustained different forms of analysis, with a close analogy between the Salzburg structuring of names with that which appears in the DLV. Moreover, research tools developed in this study have led to cognate initiatives, such as Borgholte and Geuenich which has provided lemmatized index for all the names in the St. Gallen charter collection.

  • Gerchow (1992), Prayers for King Cnut

  • This article focuses upon the frontispiece to the New Minster Liber Vitae, which depicts King Cnut and Queen Emma together offering a large cross to the community. The author compares it with the depiction of Edgar in the New Minster charter, and goes on to discuss differences, such as the deptictions of their respective crowns. Gerchow discusses continental context (notably Ottonian) for the donations of crosses, and suggests that at least three elements in the frontispiece explicitly recall Ottonian elements. The discussion then moves onto the Liber Vitae itself, and suggests in passing that it contains strong evidence of a reform impulse. He suggests that Cnut's prominence in a series of commemorative records was linked to the wish to legitimize himself as a conqueror.

  • Moore (1992), Family Entries in the Libri Vitae

  • The author begins by commenting that the libri vitae are the earliest source for English family historians and demographers (tribal hidage?). He observes that although social and economic historians focus upon manorial surveys, courts rolls etc., such texts were regarded as being as far less significant than other texts such as memorial records. Moore then reviews the ways in which Clarke used these texts to pursue studies of onomastics, etymology, prosopography etc., and then goes on to note sex imbalances in these texts. After remarks on the feudal age, attention shifts to the thirty-three entries in the Hyde abbey Liber Vitae. A prosopographical analysis follows, similar to Tsurushima (1992)

  • Moore (1994), Family entries in the Libri Vitae

  • The author provides a review of the ways in which Clark used the Thorney Liber Vitae to discuss issues such as intermarriage between English and Normans. The author then provides a discussion of forty-eight family entries in the Thorney Liber Vitae using prosopographical analysis.

  • Tsurushima (1992), The fraternity of Rochester cathedral priory

  • The author begins by providing a list of post-Conquest (1066) lords who entered into fraternityship with the monastic community of Rochester, ranging from the baronial rank to lower-ranking Anglo-Saxon nobles whose status had changed as a result of the Norman Conquest. Tsurushima sets out the thirty-two confraternity texts in full, and discusses the members of each group, on occasion providing family trees and making use of prosopographical analysis. These enables him to reconstruct one or two small communities in the parish context. The article ends by taking issue with Cowdrey's views that confraternity bonds established vertical not horizontal bonds and points to a series of long and short distance 'horizontal' relationships. Tsurushima equates confraternityship with burial in the monastic graveyard and argues that Rochester's monastic graveyard was expanded to meet secular needs but not much evidence is provided.

German Literature Survey

    Althoff, G. (1992). Amicitae und Pacta

  • This extended introduction provides a new context for the development, context and purpose of commemorative records as well as setting out various issues relating to methodology. The core of the argument is in chapters three-five. Two provides a general discussion of the stabilization of lordship under Henry I and six a discussion of why the use of these texts declined under Otto I.

    Chapter one provides a general discussion of the Carolingian context of commemorative records, the obligations and relationships which stemmed from mutual prayers for souls, and the ways in which different aspects of a common theme (namely the role of friendship and union in creating social and political cohesion) manifests itself in a range of sources. Chapter three provides a discussion of the evidence, and focuses upon the confraternity books of Reichenau and St. Gallen, the Liber Memorialis of Remiremont and the Death Annals of Fulda. It discusses the alliances between these monasteries, and the significance of issues such as the use of space in the text which had originally been reserved for other entries. Chapter four looks at the structure of the entries, their interconnections and the phenomenon, contra Mitis' work (see Constable (1972)), Althoff concludes 'to regard the order as based on families or relations would not satisfactorily explain most of the evidence' (p. 53). After demonstrating this negative conclusion, Althoff demonstrates that names entered at the same time belonged to different social groups, and hence that their entries were connected to processes of unification and peace. He connects the development of entries to the struggles between groups, and notes for example that entries are connected 'to the formation of parties in Eastern Franconia and reflects the attempts of the Conradiners to ally themselves with the local nobility in the area' (p. 65). The author's explanation also explains why such a large majority of names are not to be found in other sources, since it represents an alliance strategy between leading dynasties and local landowners. This leads to the conclusion that groups of people listed in the confraternity books need not have any connection with abbeys and their monks. The author also demonstrates a link between restitutions of monastic property and inclusion in memorial texts. Within chapter four there is also a discussion of the Anglo-Saxon embassy to St. Gallen.

    In chapter five attention is shifted towards the role of external factors in explaining the ways in which the use of confraternity books flourished in the area of Alemannia/Upper Lorraine. The author concludes this chapter by noting that 'the presence of entries in such numbers, and at such length from all areas of the realm is primarily explained by the huge efforts of all the political power-sources at the time to arm themselves in every possible way against the Hungarians' (p. 82). He begins by noting the links between prayers and intercessions through prayers as a means to defeating the Hungarians, and identifies the Worms Diet (926) as the key turning point. Original documents, moreover, specify intercession through prayer as part of that secular and ecclesiastical programme. By being able to date the entries, Althoff is also able to show that many of the entries correlate with the synods of 932, and in terms of content are consistent with the actions sought by the synods. For a few years after those synods the names of members of families were sent out to different monasteries to have their names consolidated in the names of the dead. He observes that in moments of military crisis the importance which was given to confraternity books; thus the monks of St. Gallen not only took their treasures but also their commemorative records into castles.

    In the conclusion (chapter seven) Althoff provides a summary of the issues raised in the introduction. He notes the importance of friendship and union generally and that great social divides were consciously bridged. The politics of unions had a positive echo in all parts of the realm and the surviving evidence in the commemorative records is to be regarded as the tip of the iceberg. He discusses the critical role of Henry I, and the links between unions of prayers, rebuilding of destroyed churches and the return of alienated property. Althoff, though, rejects a mono-causal explanation, noting that large numbers of entries were made before the initiatives against the Hungarians and focuses upon the Babenberger feud, the overthrow of King Zwentibold etc. as explanatory factors. Finally he suggests that comparative analysis can be applied to the Liber Vitae of Brescia, and functions of the Peace of God Movement.

  • Althoff, G., and Wollasch, J. (2000), Bleiben die Libri Memoriales stumm?

  • The authors respond to the criticisms which are made by Hoffmann of the thesis put forward by Althoff (1992). Hoffmann criticized the methodologies of Althoff and others in the types of information which can be gained from memorial texts, and more specifically why the use of these sources flourished during the reign of Henry I. Various counter comments on the criticisms raised by Hoffmann are made, notably that scholars do not need to be certain of the personal identity of each person in order to discuss the composition and significance of groups. In relation to the importance of Henry I's reign the authors reiterate the point that an exceptionally high number of names were entered during his reign, and that the entering of names cannot be reduced to a question of fashion.

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